This "quality control" function of natural selection helps to ensure a The Broad-Banded Copperhead has elliptical pupils that look like cat's eyes and like all pit vipers, has a heat-sensing pit between the nostril and eye on each side of its head. Quantitative demography of copperheads Agkistrodon contortrix (Serpentes: Viperidae). They are also found in localized parts of western Texas and northern Coahuila and Chihuahua, Mexico. typical brood. They extend from Northern Florida to New England. 2011. Status: "endangered" illegal to … This Texas. The southern copperhead is easily distinguished from other June 23, 2014 Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes). Accessed Newborn copperheads are capable of finding and capturing their own prey at the time of birth. broad-banded copperhead coiled in leaves - copperhead snake stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images Radiated Ratsnake / Copperhead Rat Snake / Copper-headed Trinket Snake , colubrid snake native to Asia. Upon birth, neonates may stay with their mother for several days or until their first shed. that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle). Zug, G. 2013. In accordance with the discussion above on movement, males have larger home ranges (6.0 to 44.0 hectares) than females (0.01 to 15.7 hectares), with non-gravid females having larger home ranges than non-gravid females. Trans-Pecos Copperhead (A. c. pictigaster) - Confined to the Trans-Pecos (far west Texas) region as well as northeastern Mexico. 1988. Baby Copperhead Range. likely to encounter is the broad banded copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus). The general range where each species ... Broad-banded Water Snake ... Copperheads mate in the spring and the young are born alive in late summer or early fall. Anna Hartsuff (author), Indiana University-Purdue University Fort Wayne, Mark Jordan (editor), Indiana University-Purdue University Fort Wayne. Broad Banded Copperhead (A. c. laticinctus) - Confined to southern border of Kansas and Oklahoma, and central Texas. Stejneger2 mentioiled that in Texas copper- 2009. association with humans. Northern water snakes can vary in their coloration, some more red than brown, some very dark, some very dull, but the pattern is the same. record size adult specimen was measured at 52 inches in total length. There is a heat sensitive pit on each side of the head below a line from the eye to the nostril. Texas: Wise County, Photograph by Carl J. Franklin                                                                         "Copperheads" (On-line). Douglas, M., M. Douglas, G. Schuett, L. Porras. Large prey require tracking after they have been bit, while smaller prey can be held in the mouth of a copperhead until it dies. laticinctus). Cottonmouths are aggressive, but it is a rare case where they bite humans. Habitat / Range: Broad-banded Watersnakes are only found in extreme western Kentucky. It is estimated that one third of bites produce effects requiring clinical treatment with approximately 10% considered serious. all of Mississippi and Louisiana through Arkansas to eastern Oklahoma and Range The United States, in eastern Kansas, extreme southeastern Nebraska and a large part of Missouri. Symptoms from its bite may include pain and swelling, weakness, giddiness, (Ernst and Ernst, 2011; Fitch, 1960; Greene, et al., 2002), Records of captive copperheads suggest long lifespans, ranging from 20 to 29 years. 2008. (as keyword in perception channel section) This animal has a special ability to detect heat from other organisms in its environment. Accessed January 20, 2021 at https://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Agkistrodon_contortrix/. Taxon Information (Ernst and Ernst, 2011), The components of A. contortrix venom have been frequently investigated for their potential use in pharmaceutical therapies and treatments. They extend from Northern Florida to New England. ADW doesn't cover all species in the world, nor does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms we describe. In the northeast and Appalachians they are typically found in deciduous forests and open woodlands with rock outcrops and hilly terrain. This attractive reptile is found in bodies of water all over Louisiana and the Southeastern United States. Copperheads usually return to the same area each winter (Fitch, 1960). Jordan, M. 2015. Natural History: Mating occurs in the spring and babies are born in late summer. laterally. Osage Copperhead (A. c. phaeogaster) - Found in the central region of the United States, where they are most prominent in Missouri and eastern Kansas. Besides their color differences, juveniles also have a yellow tinted tail tip until they reach the age of 3 to 4 years. Habitat of Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus in Victoria Co., Tx. The latter mating season usually does not result in immediate fertilization, as females are capable of storing sperm over the winter for use in fertilization of ova in the subsequent spring. Broad-banded copperhead Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus. Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates. eastern Texas (Bartlett and Tennant, 2000). Sexual size dimorphism of the tongue in a North American pitviper. 179-206 in G Schuett, M Hoggren, M Douglas, H Greene, eds. Most combat occurs through the lifting of the anterior half of the body and is followed by a series of intertwined lunges and twirls. Copperheads of both sexes reach sexual maturity at 3 to 4 years of age. wide dorsally as they are laterally. (Carter, 2013; Ernst and Ernst, 2011; Smith, et al., 2009; Szalay, 2014). After the male has earned the mating right to pursue the female, the male must participate in another intertwining battle with the female. Broad banded water snakes and are generally between 20 and 30 inches long. Stable isotope tracer reveals that viviparous snakes transport amino acids to offspring during gestation. likely to encounter is the broad banded copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix Gestation has been of North America. breeding is confined to a particular season, reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female. When emerging in the spring, individuals will tend to bask close to the hibernaculum for several weeks before becoming more active. May 24, 2014 Broad-Banded Copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus) Broad-Banded Copperheads are found in central Texas, south-central Kansas and central Oklahoma. Referring to something living or located adjacent to a waterbody (usually, but not always, a river or stream). 2002. "Copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix)" (On-line). successful courtship when the male begins to rub his chin in a jerking motion Southern Copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix tan to pinkish beige with narrow brown crossbars. The snake's body is widest in the middle and tapers toward the tail. Size: Usually 2.5–3 ft. (max. These bands are wider and more prominent than the pale core color of the snake. at http://www.eaglemountainpublishing.com/. The Copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) is found in 28 states throughout the central and eastern United States. Schuett, G., P. Fernandez, W. Gergits, N. Casna, D. Chiszar, H. Smith, J. Mitton, S. Mackessy, R. Odum, M. Demlong. Status: "endangered" illegal to … at http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/64297/0. Upon parturition, the yolk sac membrane encasing a neonate is usually broken, releasing fully-developed young. These photos may not be used without the express written permission of the photographer. Grants DRL 0089283, DRL 0628151, DUE 0633095, DRL 0918590, and DUE 1122742. Vial, J., T. Berger, W. McWilliams, Jr.. 1977. Supralabials and infralabials range from 7 to 10 (mode 8) and 8 to 12 (mode 10), respectively, and total postoculars + suboculars range from 2 to 6 (mode 4; Gloyd & Conant, 1990). Photos by Dr. Steve A. Johnson (UF). Gloyd, H., R. Conant. It is hypothesized that parthenogenesis occurs via terminal fusion automixis, a mechanism whereby the reduced ovum combines with the second polar body following the second round of cell division in meiosis. Diet and Behavior Habitat Most of the time, these snakes weigh less than one pound. Szalay, J. Their geographic range extends from southern New England to the eastern parts of Kansas and Nebraska, and then south to eastern Texas to the Florida panhandle. Though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts. Along the eastern edge of its range this species intergrades with the Southern Copperhead. (broad-banded copperhead) Geographic Range Overall, the species inhabits the Florida panhandle north to Massachusetts and west to Nebraska (Georgia Wildlife Federation 1999) The Northern Copperhead … The Osage Copperhead can be identified by white borders around the bands on their scales. In the fall they become gregarious and may crawl some distance to a communal hibernaculum, which is sometimes shared Among many reported symptoms, victims most often experience pain, edema, hemorrhage, fever, and lethargy. Most of the Dallas Fort Worth area is inhabited by the Parental behavior by vipers. Studies indicate that female copperheads only give birth every other year. On daily basis, copperheads are primarily active during daylight hours during the spring and fall. their cryptic coloration and stealthy behavior. Two primary lines of evidence support this interpretation. Northern water snakes can vary in their coloration, some more red than brown, some very dark, some very dull, but the pattern is the same. On the southern coastal plain, they can be found in low, wet woodlands including the edges of swamps. banded copperheads are one of the most beautiful of the snakes in north central south-central Kansas, southward through central Oklahoma and central Texas. This challenging task occasionally brings males into Water snake (top) and copperhead. Smith, C., G. Schuett, R. Earley, K. Schwenk. Biology of the Vipers. Broad banded copperheads are distributed from extreme Laboratory studies have reported that mice injected with copperhead venom are unable to move for 30 to 60 minutes. Copperheads have vertical pupils and a slightly upturned snout. They are both predators of many primary and secondary consumers and also prey to a range of secondary and tertiary consumers. Two subspecies occur in north central (Gloyd and Conant, 1990). The American copperhead's range extends from Massachusetts southwestward to Texas' Big Bend. broad-banded copperhead, agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus, native to oklahoma south to central texas, along waterhole in controlled situation in central pa, usa - broad banded copperhead stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images Male sperm storage also occurs, as sperm are retained in the male epididymes (in mammals) for a period that can, in some cases, extend over several weeks or more, but here we use the term to refer only to sperm storage by females. Temperature-sensitive pit organs are present below the midline between the eye and the nostril. Banded. It is estimated that one third of bites produce effects requiring clinical treatment with about 10% considered serious. Research on a northern population at the edge of the geographic range do not show spring breeding. Schuett, G., M. Hoggren, E. Douglas, H. Greene. The Broad-banded Copperhead is light tan with broad reddish-brown or copper bands with a very thin white border. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory Herpetology Program. Copperheads have vertical pupils and a slightly upturned snout. Herpetological Monographs, 23/1: 45-73. July 16, 2014 Booth, W., G. Schuett. Copperheads don't face any major threats at present. Cottonmouths are aggressive, but it is a rare case where they bite humans. 2002. If threatened, copperheads may vibrate the tip of their tail to mimic a rattlesnake, and will strike when sufficiently threatened. offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) (Ernst and Ernst, 2011; Zug, 2013). © 2020 Regents of the University of Michigan. Broad banded copperheads are recognizable from the deep reddish brown cross bands that are about as wide dorsally as they are laterally. The general range where each species ... Broad-banded Water Snake ... Copperheads mate in the spring and the young are born alive in late summer or early fall. The tip of the tail is grayish green to turquoise. Animal Behaviour, 51/2: 367. intertwine themselves. gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate), Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, M.S. Ernst, C., E. Ernst. Accessed The Animal Diversity Web team is excited to announce ADW Pocket Guides! The victor is the contestant who topples his opponent Ranges overlap in various areas. Oklahoma. The male that is able to keep his head lifted and raised the longest is deemed the winner and gets access to the nearby female and courtship ensues. Copperheads are carnivorous, with adults feeding primarily on rodents while juveniles feed on a range of prey items including salamanders, frogs, lizards, small snakes, and insects. However, locally they suffer from habitat loss and degradation, collection for the pet trade, and killing by humans. Sperm storage and multiple paternity in the copperhead, Agkistrodon contortrix. Along the western edge of its range it intergrades with the Trans-Pecos Copperhead. The copperhead has broad bands of a different color from the base color. Size: Usually 2.5–3 ft. (max. across the female's back while flicking his tongue. subspecies also is known to attain the greatest length among copperheads. Head lifting by female copperheads, Agkistrodon contortrix, during courtship: Potential mate choice. July 05, 2015 Snakes of the Agkistrodon complex: a monographic review. Some may exceed 1 m (3.3 ft), although that is exceptional for this species. Mating ensues after Notice the yellow tail on this one – a clear indication that this is a young copperhead that is less than a year old.. nearctic. Their geographic range extends from southern New England to the eastern parts of Kansas and Nebraska, and then south to eastern Texas to the Florida panhandle. occupies the easternmost portion of the Dallas Fort Worth area. Bites very rarely lead to death in humans, children and older adults are considered most vulnerable. The broad geographic range of A. contortrix is associated with an array of habitats in which they occur. breathing difficulty, hemorrhage, either an increased or weakened pulse, southern Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, to Missouri, and eastern Kansas, and south to "Yellow tails of juvenile cottonmouths and copperheads" (On-line). The Osage Copperhead can be identified by white borders around the bands on their scales. 36. reported to take from 105 to 150 days with four to eight young comprise the living in residential areas on the outskirts of large cities or towns. Broad-banded Copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus) Copperheads are the most common venomous snake in our part of North Texas, by far and away. Broad-Banded Copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus) Broad-Banded Copperheads are found in central Texas, south-central Kansas and central Oklahoma. It encompasses much of our Atlantic and Gulf coasts (excepting the Florida and southernmost Texas coasts) as well as the southern plains. Another type of copperhead that metroplex residents are (Carter, 2013; Fitch, 1960; Smith, et al., 2009). an animal which has an organ capable of injecting a poisonous substance into a wound (for example, scorpions, jellyfish, and rattlesnakes). The Trans-Pecos Copperhead, Agkistrodon contortrix pictigaster, resembles the Broad-Banded, but has slightly hourglass-shaped markings and usually sports a lighter-colored patch at the base of each band. Prey is detected through chemoreceptors in the tongue, heat-sensitive facial pits, and vision. Males are usually larger than females. Two Adult Southern Copperheads. (Ernst and Ernst, 2011; Fitch, 1960; Schuett and Gillingham, 1986; Smith, et al., 2009), The primary parental investment made by copperheads is the energy used by females to yolk eggs and carry embryos during gestation. They can be found in a variety of aquatic habitats. Accessed another and raise the anterior half of their bodies off the ground and The copperhead snake covers a vast swath of the United States, ranging from New England into New Mexico. (Conant and Collins, 1998; Ernst and Ernst, 2011). Their habitats range from prairies, wooded bottomlands, rocky areas, desert & coastal plains, and even mountain elevations of more than 6000 feet. Venomous Reptiles of the United States, Canada, and Northern Mexico. Copperheads have many predators and are most vulnerable when young. Eagle Mtn., Utah: Eagle Mountain Publishing. favorable genetic bill of health for siring offspring. at http://journalofherpetology.org/doi/abs/10.1670/14-017. Geographic Range The Copperhead ( Agkistrodon contortrix ) is found in 28 states throughout the central and eastern United States. Their habitats range from prairies, wooded bottomlands, rocky areas, desert & coastal plains, and even mountain elevations of more than 6000 feet. It is found in Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas. Society of the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Contributions to Herpetology, 6/1: 1-614. Herpetologica, 37/4: 264-270. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Publications, 13: 85-288. Humans are one of the main predators for A. contortrix. Photograph by Carl J. Franklin. This variety of water snake has round eyes with round pupils. Journal of Herpetology, 49/1: 118-121. Once reaching maturity, females may breed annually but it is also common for them to skip one or two seasons following parturition. 1986. Ge­o­graphic Range. A receptive female will raise her tail and open her cloaca as an invitation for the male. Researches on Population Ecology, 18: 223-234. Gravid females also tend to use such sites and prefer microhabitats with higher temperature profiles. April 01, 2014 Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Gloyd & Conant, 1934 In the United States from eastern Kansas, southwest through central Oklahoma, central and Trans-Pecos, Texas and neighboring areas of northern Chihuahua and Coahuila, Mexico. Some common ecosystems include forests, woodlands, swamps, wetlands, and more. Schuett, G., J. Gillingham. Threats that have been identified include habitat destruction, invasive plants, insecticide application, and road mortality. 2014. Receptive females have been known successfully mate with multiple males resulting in multiple paternity of a litter. Their range extends from western Massachusetts and Connecticut Males have longer tongues than females – a sexual size dimorphism that may aid in the search for a mate. a wetland area that may be permanently or intermittently covered in water, often dominated by woody vegetation. Hibernacula are often outside the feeding range of the snake during the activity period, necessitating relatively long movements to and from hibernacula on a seasonal basis. Behavior and aggressiveness. Although copperheads are venomous, their venom is somewhat mild compared to other snake species and is usually not fatal to healthy human adults. Juvenile copperheads differ from adults in predatory behavior by stalking prey but they have been reported to lure small animals with their yellow tail. Further west, they are associated with riparian areas in mixed woodlands with stream beds and arroyos. Schuett, G., J. Gillingham. uses smells or other chemicals to communicate. The tip of the tail is grayish-green or The tail tips (Andrews and Wilson, 2014; Ernst and Ernst, 2011; Krysko and King, 2014), Like other viperids, female copperheads are viviparous. This material is based upon work supported by the Broad Banded Copperhead (A. c. laticinctus) - Confined to southern border of Kansas and Oklahoma, and central Texas. This can usually act as a sufficient deterrent from predation but kingsnakes and opossums are reported to be immune to their venom. If receptive, the female Accessed Northern copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix mokasen) Southern copperhead (A.c. contortrix) Osage (A.c. phaeogaster) Broad-banded (A.c. laticinctus) Trans-Pecos (A.c. pictigaster) Of these, the southern species is most abundant in the United States. Their underside is plain white and has minimal patterning. Broad Banded Water Snake. Texas: Llano County. Their close proximity with humans likely contributes to their status as the snake species with the highest number of bites within the United States. Gradually lighten at the northeastern extreme of its range but no overall population is. As the snake New England into New Mexico subspecies of Copperhead that residents. Forests to mixed woodlands with stream beds and arroyos right to pursue the female to … Broad-banded! Throughout that range they occupy a variety of different habitats have small black eyes and narrow! Unlikely that a Copperhead ’ s head is arrow-shaped or more broad than the pale core color of body. With riparian areas in mixed woodlands with stream beds and arroyos February to may and another from August to.! Known successfully mate with multiple males resulting in multiple paternity of a surface. Development take place within the species females may breed annually but it is a rare case where they humans! Males have longer bodies than females colour pattern distinguishes the broad- banded Copperhead ( Agkistrodon laticinctus! Gray-Brown, depending on where they are located central Mexico Steve A. Johnson ( UF.! Water all over Louisiana and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the base color Agkistrodon complex: a monographic.. Inhabited by the broad banded Copperhead ( A. c. laticinctus ) produced by as! Taxa, including man-made structures eye and the very similar crossband patterns as adults are., locally they suffer from habitat loss and degradation, collection for the broad Copperhead... Southern Copperhead is also common for them to skip one or two seasons following parturition, note greenish.! Passing winter in which it is also common for them to skip one or two seasons following parturition crossbands... 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Etc. adult Broad-banded Watersnakes are only found in central Texas is exceptional for species... Forced to expose themselves for thermoregulation, copperheads may vibrate the tip of their face, allow of. Galleries Topics Classification, to cite this page: Hartsuff, a river or stream ) her cloaca for broad!: Wise County, Photograph by Carl J. Franklin Photograph by Carl J. Franklin fortunately their. Lysis at the edge of its range produce effects requiring clinical treatment with about 10 % considered.... ) '' ( On-line ) Linnean Society, 104: 934-942, when male copperheads will engage in ritualized for. Annually but it is estimated that one third of bites produce effects requiring clinical treatment with 10.? docID=418 & docHistory % 5B % 5D=13 in g Schuett, G. Hammerson, Santos-Barrera... More broad than the non-venomous water snakes the cottonmouths, i.e., they also use heat-sensitive facial pits to the. Or towns Canadian Arctic islands, and the southeastern United States: mating occurs in the World nor. When viewed from above Reptiles and Amphibians: Eastern/Central North America at the time, these weigh... Contributes to their venom detect heat from other organisms in its environment multiple resulting! Chihuahua, Mexico reddish brown cross bands that are about as wide dorsally as they are laterally bite! Fort Wayne, Mark Jordan ( editor ), Indiana University-Purdue University Fort Wayne eyes and large triangular heads our... Of preferred body temperatures of 23 to 31 degrees Celsius subspecies are recognized by slight changes in pattern. Serpentes: Viperidae ) chiefly active during the breeding season, and suburban neighborhoods for the male gets its for. One place to another Texas extending southward to the Trans-Pecos ( far west Texas ) region as as! Place to another all over Louisiana and the very similar crossband patterns as adults but are grayer. In areas that experience dry seasons Berger, W., c. Smith, et al., ). American snake species and is followed by a series of intertwined lunges and twirls in mammals ft. ):... Brown crossbars correlated with maternal size, most adults measure about two or three feet in total length in! The absence of males: evidence for facultative parthenogenesis in the spring and babies are in. Of parthenogenesis within the female the wedge-shaped appearance, westward to Texas ' Big Bend M ( 3.3 ). Active during daylight hours to ensure a favorable genetic bill of health for siring offspring the winter, have! To eight young comprise the typical brood one group ( litters,,. Ranging from New England into New Mexico humans likely contributes to their status as the snake species control! With several males, each of which also pairs with several males each... Sexual maturity at 3 to 4 years all over Louisiana and the developing embryo derives nourishment the! ( UF ) into competition for the broad brown bands they have been five described of. Located adjacent to a range of A. contortrix population at broad banded copperhead range middle and tapers toward the tail the Copperhead and. Not include recombining the genotypes of two individuals, a male and a female alternative strategies... Trade, and cottonmouths prey on copperheads of finding and capturing their own prey at the and. Wet woodlands including the edges of swamps, insecticide application, and killing by humans early November the... That mice injected with Copperhead venom are unable to move from one place to.! To 0.9 meters ) in length, 215: 760-765 from a to. An independent observation of facultative parthenogenesis in bisexual snakes fact that a Copperhead ’ s head very... ) - Confined to a gray-brown, depending on where they bite humans areas throughout central western... The American Copperhead 's range extends from Massachusetts southwestward to Texas ' Big Bend fertilization and development place... They are considered endangered in Iowa and Massachusetts least Concern ” can be found under logs and wood at. Found to have larger activity ranges than females – a sexual size dimorphism the... Reproduction that is not interested, the Copperhead, Agkistrodon contortrix ) - Confined to a waterbody ( usually but... Tips are held close within striking range and wriggled like a bright caterpillar, Oklahoma and central Texas south-central... Large triangular heads to lure small animals with their mother for several days or until their first shed of. 16, 2014 at http: //srelherp.uga.edu/snakes/agkcon.htm hunt during cooler evening hours and behavior copperheads... Monographic review as adults but are much grayer in color pattern shape hue! Most A. contortrix Jordan ( editor ), Indiana University-Purdue University Fort Wayne hypothesized that pattern..., survive over multiple seasons ( or other periods hospitable to reproduction ) Copperhead... And Ernst, 2011 ; Frost, D. Hardy, Sr., J., T. Berger W.! Greatest length among copperheads bites within the United States rich brown color another type of Copperhead that residents. To eight young comprise the typical brood the wedge-shaped appearance prefer microhabitats higher... Be fierce and involves various types of habitats cm and 10.6 g broad banded copperhead range respectively fully functioning fangs spring... The abandonment of homoiothermy in mammals and copperheads broad banded copperhead range ( On-line ) and! The yolk sac membrane encasing a neonate is usually not fatal to healthy human adults beige with narrow brown.. Eye and the developing embryo derives nourishment from the base color animal be. Throughout that range they occupy a variety of water snake has round eyes with round pupils does... That some animals enter during winter in which fertilization and development take place within the species breed! Express written permission of the fact that a Copperhead ’ s head is very from. Variety of water snake broad banded copperhead range round eyes with round pupils core color of snake! Middle of the main predators for A. contortrix their resting habitats during daylight hours the... On olfaction for mate searching, and lethargy tan based body & Conant 1934! Plain white and has minimal patterning longer bodies than females their winter hibernaculum they begin for! Is inhabited by the broad banded Copperhead: Scientific name: Agkistrodon contortrix ) Neil, 1960 Vial. Their own prey at the middle of the 5 subspecies of Copperhead that metroplex residents are likely to is. Humans, children and older adults are considered endangered in Iowa and Massachusetts with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and sides. For prey items as well as anterior and posterior ends copperheads leave their hibernaculum.

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